That is not true. Not yet.
That is true, but not here.

 ( about decison making )

Reflections on the decision-making behaviour of the individual

The term information pathologies comes from behavioural economics and psychology. The concept of information pathologies basically states that information can be wrongly present, wrongly transmitted and/or wrongly encoded. This term goes back to Harold L. Wilensky. In 1955/56, the social scientist Herbert A. Simon introduced the term bounded rationality to describe a certain type of decision-making.
The individual strives to consciously act rationally (the striving for the so-called ideal of rationality). But cognitive limits to information intake and processing prevent individuals from making objectively rational decisions. Concentration on facts and figures can push otherwise interpretable contexts of an issue into the background.

According to Wilensky, the main cause of information pathologies is rooted in the ideal of rationality.

Several information pathologies can reinforce each other in their effect. Research has shown that innovation success is almost impossible when information pathologies become entrenched.

Information pathology is a collective term in industrial psychology for various aspects that can fail in the generation, exchange and application of information, with the result that decisions are made on the basis of an inadequate information base.
One speaks of an information pathology when there are factors in an organisation that systematically negatively influence the quality of information supply to decision-makers. Basically, a distinction can be made between structural information pathologies (e.g. due to excessive hierarchy or centralisation) and doctrinal information pathologies (due to the prevailing ideology or culture).

Information pathologies are avoidable errors in knowledge production and communication. Individual phenomena such as groupthink, information overload or self-serving bias are closely related to information pathologies and have been studied within the framework of general psychology and social psychology. However, the concept of information pathologies involves a much more general view of barriers to information processing.

An empirical study was able to show that the exercise of power is a major cause of information pathologies (Scholl, 1999).
  Conclusion:  The use of power has a negative effect on knowledge growth  

This text-to-image is created by the following keywords: Data, power, controll

By increasing self-awareness and teaching knowledge concepts, the perception of information pathologies can be sensitised. But before measures to improve communication are introduced on a cognitive level, a trusting attitude based on acceptance is needed.

However, in everyday life, people allow themselves to be influenced by their unconscious desires, needs and conflicts. One has dreams that are not one's own.
Power, however, consists precisely in controlling the acquisition, possession and application of this information.
This is the honey pump. Like busy little bees, we give up our data voluntarily and often with the greatest enthusiasm to the instruments of power.

The world has changed - since at least 2011:  indignations, indignations

Already in 2011, journalist John Harris wrote an article about the global upheavals, referring to a New York Times article "2011, the year of global outrage "
John Harris
Tue 15 Nov 2011 20.00 GMT

These  "indignations" and "outrages"  continues to this day and is unifyingly categorised as resistance. But the term resistance as it is used today has its own history.

The term "resistance" largely replaced earlier terms such as "emancipation", "liberation", "a society free from exploitation", "a society free from alienation" and the like. What are the consequences and implications of this standardisation?

So there is a critique of Foucault's concept of power.

Michel Foucault: "Where there is power, there is resistance, and yet, or rather consequently, this resistance is never in a position of exteriority in relation to power...Their [power relationships] very existence depends on a multiplicity of points of resistance...Hence there is no single locus of Great Refusal, no soul of revolt, source of all rebellions, or pure law of the revolutionary. Instead there are specific cases of resistance...They are the other in the relations of power; they inscribe themselves as irreducible in relation to it"

Foucault outlines power as a "relationship", "not something that is acquired, grasped or shared".

The conclusion is: Resistance here is a concept inherent to power, ultimately generated by power and thus challenging power from within.

At this point, once again: as in structuralism, with Foucault the individual is neither a product of the Enlightenment nor the subject of autonomous economic action.
In Foucault's theory, the subject is in fact the object and product of a knowledge/power relationship. The human being is, so Foucault, already "in itself the result of a subjection".

So Foucault's concept of power is closely linked to his theory or analytics of discourses and the production of knowledge. Thus, power/rule is tied to knowledge or the dissemination of knowledge. Control over information ensures and safeguards the legitimacy of supremacy.

If one thinks Foucault's theory through consistently, this means that one should no longer believe anything (as an act of restistance).

With this discourse of power - and especially Foucault's critique of the Great Refusal - it has become fashionable to replace the term revolution with that of resistance. Foucault's critics write that such a concept of resistance "does not allow for the radical gesture of thoroughly restructuring the hegemonic symbolic order in its entirety"
(Introduction to Marcuse, Philosophy, Psychoanalysis and Emancipation, NY: Routledge, 2011, p. 63).

Foucault describes a concept of resistance that does not distinguish between different types of resistance to power, whether reactionary or emancipatory. Foucault's concept of power obscures the possibility of actually overcoming the rule of capital and the state in a positive, emancipatory way by locating the concept of resistance within power. This does not allow for emancipation. Marcuse's Great Refusal, for example, would be an example of emancipatory politics. Unfortunately, Marcuse's "Great Refusal" remains too abstract.
Karl Marx was also guided by a vision of an emancipated human future.

So it is about the emancipated human being.


See the next pages: